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SCIENTISTS' VIEW ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FEET HEALTH AND MODERN SHOES
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
ON FEET HEALTH AND BAREFOOT SHOES
1. McKeon PO, Hertel J, Bramble D, Davis I. The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function (USA, 2015).

Conclusion: A new paradigm for understanding the functionality of the musculoskeletal system of the foot is considered. The stabilizing properties of the feet are compared with the abdominal press. The study calls for awareness of the importance of foot strength.


2. Wolf S, Simon J, Patikas D, Schuster W, Armbrust P, Döderlein L. Foot motion in children shoes: a comparison of barefoot walking with shod walking in conventional and flexible shoes (Germany, 2008).

Conclusion: Flexible children's shoes with thin soles do not harm the biomechanics of the feet. Barefoot shoes are recommended for healthy children.


3. Chou SW, Cheng HY, Chen JH, Ju YY, Lin YC, Wong MK. The role of the great toe in balance performance (China, 2009).

Conclusion: Restriction of the big toe movement impairs the balance of the body.


4. Stolwijk NM, Duysens J, Louwerens JW, van de Ven YH, Keijsers NL. Flat feet, happy feet? Comparison of the dynamic plantar pressure distribution and static medial foot geometry between Malawian and Dutch adults (The Netherlands, 2013).

Conclusion: Even distribution of bodyweight over the entire foot is vital for feet health.


5. Eils E, Nolte S, Tewes M, Thorwesten L, Völker K, Rosenbaum D. Modified pressure distribution patterns in walking following reduction of plantar sensation (Germany, 2002).

Conclusion: Sensory communication from the feet is important for proper step biomechanics.


6. Meyer PF, Oddsson LI, De Luca CJ. The role of plantar cutaneous sensation in unperturbed stance (USA, 2004).

Conclusion: Sensory communication from the feet and ankles is important for the balance in a standing position.


7. Elizabeth E. Miller, Katherine K. Whitcome, Daniel E. Lieberman, Heather L. Norton, Rachael E. Dyerc. The effect of minimal shoes on arch structure and intrinsic foot muscle strength (USA, 2014).

Conclusion: Running and walking in barefoot shoes strengthens the foot muscles and significantly improves the condition of the arch of the foot.


8. Joel T. Fuller, Dominic Thewlis, Margarita D. Tsiros, Nicholas A. T. Brown, Joseph Hamill & Jonathan D. Buckley. Longer-term effects of minimalist shoes on running performance, strength and bone density: A 20-week follow-up study (Germany, Australia, 2018).

Conclusion: A group of athletes who trained in barefoot shoes for 6 weeks showed increased running performance and reduced energy expenditure. Those who continued training in barefoot shoes for up to 20 weeks have increased strength of calf muscles.


9. Karen Weintraub. Going Barefoot Is Good for the Sole (USA, 2019).

Conclusion: Walking barefoot is more beneficial for the body than walking in shoes with a thick soles. It is important for the feet to feel the ground beneath it. This improves coordination and balance. The best shoes are those shoes that "complement the body's natural abilities, not undermine them."


10. Altman AR, Davis IS. Barefoot running: biomechanics and implications for running injuries (USA, 2012).

Conclusion: Despite the technologies of running shoes, up to 79% of runners are injured during the training year. Mankind has developed barefoot – so it is advisable to study this type of running. Running barefoot promotes steps from the forefoot. Such biomechanics is associated with a reduction in the load on the body from the impact of the foot on the ground, a shorter stride length. Studies have shown a reduction in the number of injuries in runners who used forefoot running technique. In addition to improving the biomechanics of movement, running barefoot gives the runner increased sensory feedback to the foot from the ground. This improves body's balance and stability.


11. Russell RM, Simmons S. The effects of barefoot running on overpronation in runners (USA, 2016).

Conclusion:
Running barefoot significantly reduces excessive pronation of the feet.


12. Rao UB, Joseph B. The influence of footwear on the prevalence of flat foot. A survey of 2300 children (UK, 1992).

Conclusion: To determine the effect of wearing shoes on the prevalence of flat feet, scientists analyzed the feet of 2,300 children in India aged 4 to 13 years. The incidence among children who used shoes was 8.6%. Among children who walked barefoot – 2.8%. Flat feet were most common in children who wore shoes with a narrow toe box. Less often – in those who wore sandals or slippers. Even less often – in those who walked barefoot. The results of this study show that wearing shoes in early childhood is detrimental to the development of a normal longitudinal arch of the feet.
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